Cumin Seed (Jeera)

Jeera or cumin seed is an oblong shaped, sharp flavored and dark colored aromatic spice that is placed second to pepper in the context of importance. It is actually the dried fruit of an annual, thin-stemmed cumin plant, which belongs to parsley family. The plant has a short height of 25-30 centimeters and has white to red colored flowers. These flowers produce the fruits for the plant that are consumed all over the world as a flavoring agent in whole or grounded form. Jeera is also known for its curing characteristics and hence it is used in many herbal and Ayurvedic medicines.

Overview:
Jeera or cumin seed has a significant demand as a spice all around the globe especially in the places where spicy food is preferred. It is an integral part of the recipes in various cultures. After pepper, jeera is considered to be the most important spice in the world. Cumin in grounded form also forms part of various spicy mixtures, most important being 'Garam masala' (extensively used throughout south Asia), which are again used to add pungent flavors to the dishes and cuisines. It also has a number of medicinal uses and helps in curing many diseases.

India being the world leader in the context of spice production, it is also the largest producer of jeera in the world. Jeera is generally cultivated in the hot and humid climates that is aptly provided by the regions in North Africa, southern parts of the North American continent and Southern Asia. Regarding the consumption pattern of this spice, India again bags the first place. The most of the demand for cumin seeds comes from the food and food processing industry and the world’s total demand except India's demand sum up to a mere 25 to 30 thousand tons. This shows the country’s dominance in the major jeera consuming countries that are mentioned in the following list:

  • India
  • Mexico
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Turkey
  • China
  • Japan
  • Netherlands
  • France
  • Morocco

The world market structure regarding jeera is very much concentrated as bulk of the production is performed by a fewer countries and only those countries are able to export this spice to the rest of the world. The major cumin seed exporting countries are:

  • India
  • Turkey
  • Iran

India was the primary exporter of cumin seeds and cumin oil in the world since few years but comparatively new entrants in the market like Turkey and Iran are providing stiff competition to now. These countries are able to provide the spice at much cheaper prices than India and hence are gaining advantage over it. Most of the cumin seeds are exported to the countries that do not produce jeera themselves and make huge markets for the spice. These countries are:

  • United States of America
  • Sri Lanka
  • United Kingdom
  • Netherlands
  • Japan
  • Brazil
  • Singapore

History:
Jeera or cumin seed is an ancient spice having a history of over 5000 years. The origination of this spice is not known but it is said that the cumin plant is a native to the historical Levant region and northern Egypt. As today, cumin had a role as a flavoring agent throughout its history. It had always been used as a spice and for its medicinal uses. Since its origin it was renowned for its sharp biting taste that proved to be a key factor in making this spice popular and a substitute to the costly pepper. Even Bible has mentioned about jeera not only as a famous spice in the historical times but it was also used as a currency to pay taxes. Cumin also played a very important part as an agent among the ingredients to MUMMIFY pharaohs.

In Greece and Rome, it was a practice to keep cumin powder on the dining table in small containers. When America was found, it was not known there, as it was a spice of the old world until the Spaniards introduced it into the new world. In the middle ages, it was also considered as a symbol of love and was exchanged as gifts. But it somehow lost its reputation and people then started using other alternatives after this time. In the modern era, it has regained its popularity and nowadays it is used extensively all over the world again.

Cultivation pattern:
Cumin plant basically thrives on a hot, tropical climate, but can also be cultivated in the cooler regions in a green house. The cumin crop can be produced on almost all soil types but the soil, which suits the best to this crop, is a well-drained, fertile sandy soil type. It needs a minimum of 3 to 4 months of duration period after which it is harvested. Cumin plant has a good tap root system that makes it a drought resistant plant.

In India the jeera plant is grown as a rabi crop i.e. it is sown in the winters in the months of October to December and is harvested in the months of February, March and April. In other cumin cultivating countries in the Middle East, the crop is planted in the months of April and is harvested in the months of August and September. The plant becomes mature and ready to harvest when it turns yellowish brown. After the crop gets harvested, the cumin seeds are cleaned up through the winnowing process.

Jeera or Cumin seeds producing countries
The countries that produce jeera or cumin seeds are:

  • India
  • Turkey
  • Syria
  • China
  • United States of America
  • Iran
  • Indonesia
  • Sudan
  • Egypt
  • Morocco
  • Algeria
  • Libya

ndia represents the world leader in the jeera production. The country produces 1 to 2 lakh tons of cumin seeds annually. Syria stands second in the list with a production figure of 25000 tons. This clears out the India is far more dominant in this context than any other country as it also possess the maximum area in the cultivation of the spice. Turkey and Iran have the same level of production i.e. 15000 to 20000 tons of cumin seeds and that makes them both stand third in the leading producer’s list. Though Syria, Turkey and Iran have a much lesser level of production as compared to India, but these countries have an equally significant influence in the determination of world jeera prices.

Production of jeera in India:
India's production sums up to 1 to 2 lakh tons of jeera per year that makes it the leading producer in the world. The country also has the largest area allotted towards jeera production i.e. around 5.25 lakh hectares. The level of production and the total area under jeera cultivation has increased significantly during the last few years. The major districts that are indulged in the production of this crop are:

  • Barmer (Rajasthan)
  • Jalore (Rajasthan)
  • Nagaur (Rajasthan)
  • Pali (Rajasthan)
  • Ajmer (Rajasthan)
  • Bhilwara (Rajasthan)
  • Tonk (Rajasthan)
  • Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
  • Jaisalmer (Rajasthan)
  • Sirohi (Rajasthan)
  • Sikar (Rajasthan)
  • Bikaner (Rajasthan)
  • Banaskantha (Gujarat)
  • Sabarkantha (Gujarat)
  • Mehsana (Gujarat)
  • Patan (Gujarat)
  • Junagarh (Gujarat)
  • Jamnagar (Gujarat)
  • Rajkot (Gujarat)
  • Bhavnagar (Gujarat)
  • Amreli (Gujarat)
  • Surendranagar (Gujarat)
  • Nimach (Madhya Pradesh)
  • Mansoor (Madhya Pradesh)

Rajsthan is largest jeera producing state in the country. It contributed around 1.2 lakh tons in the country’s total produce in the year 2003-04 and it also have the maximum area under jeera cultivation i.e. around 2.25 lakh hectares. Gujarat is the second largest cumin seed producer in India. Rajasthan and Gujarat contribute to approximately 90% of the production in the country.

Indian jeera market:
India has ever been the world spice home and has always been renowned for the best and expensive variety of spices that are produced in the country. The similar reputation is repeated in the case of jeera or cumin seeds. Being the largest producer, consumer and exporter of jeera in the world, India claims to be the most dominating player in the world market scenario. The production of jeera in India hovers around 1 to 2 lakh metric tons as it also has the maximum area granted to the cultivation of this spice. Rajasthan scores the highest production in the country constituting to 55% of the total production in the country. The trend of production is observed to be in a rising trend. The domestic consumption demand of the spice in the country is around 1 lakh tons and the rest of the production is used for export purposes.

India exports around 8000 tons of cumin seed every year. Also, the by products of cumin seeds like oleoresins of cumin seeds and cumin oil is also exported from India. The exports of jeera from India are facing a stiff competition from the countries like Turkey and Iran as a bulk of their production is used for export purposes and also because these countries are able to provide the spice at much cheaper rates as compared to India. That is why; the exports from India have declined since a few years, reason being the contraction in the country’s market share. This scenario, which is depicting a higher production trend and a lower export trend, is proving to be very harmful for the prices of this spice. The countries that import cumin seeds from India are:

  • United States
  • Singapore
  • Japan
  • United Kingdom
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Bangladesh
  • Brazil
  • Nepal
  • Malaysia

Market Influencing Factors:

  • Seasonal variations
  • Broad range demand
  • Weather fluctuations
  • Structure of the market
  • Flow of information,

Major trading centers of cumin seeds or jeera
The major trading centers of jeera in India are:

  • Unjha (Gujrat)
  • Niwai (Rajasthan)
  • Kekri (Rajasthan)
  • Nagaur (Rajasthan)
  • Jodhpur (Rajasthan)
  • Pratapgarh (Rajasthan)
  • Nembhaheda (Rajasthan)
  • Bhawani mandi (Rajasthan)
  • Jhalarapatan (Rajasthan)
  • Ramganj mandi (Rajasthan)
  • Rani (Rajasthan)
  • Palli (Rajasthan)
  • Kota (Rajasthan)
  • Jaipur (Rajasthan)
  • Rajkot
  • Delhi

Commodity Trading Company in Afghanistan Commodity Trading Company in Albania Commodity Trading Company in Algeria Commodity Trading Company in Andorra Commodity Trading Company in Angola Commodity Trading Company in Antigua and Barbuda Commodity Trading Company in Argentina Commodity Trading Company in Armenia Commodity Trading Company in Australia Converted Commodity Trading Company in Austria Commodity Trading Company in Azerbaijan Commodity Trading Company in Bahamas Commodity Trading Company in Bahrain Commodity Trading Company in Bangladesh Commodity Trading Company in Barbados Commodity Trading Company in Belarus Commodity Trading Company in Belgium Commodity Trading Company in Benin Commodity Trading Company in Bhutan Commodity Trading Company in Bolivia State Commodity Trading Company in Bosnia and Herzegovina Commodity Trading Company in Botswana Commodity Trading Company in Brazil Commodity Trading Company in Brunei Commodity Trading Company in Bulgaria Commodity Trading Company in Burkina Faso Commodity Trading Company in Burundi Commodity Trading Company in Cambodia Commodity Trading Company in Cameroon Commodity Trading Company in Canada Commodity Trading Company in Cape Verde Commodity Trading Company in Central African Republic Commodity Trading Company in Chad Commodity Trading Company in Chile Commodity Trading Company in China Commodity Trading Company in Colombia Commodity Trading Company in Comoros Commodity Trading Company in Costa Rica State Commodity Trading Company in Croatia Commodity Trading Company in Cuba Commodity Trading Company in Cyprus Commodity Trading Company in Czech Republic Commodity Trading Company in Democratic Republic of the Congo Commodity Trading Company in Denmark Commodity Trading Company in Djibouti Commodity Trading Company in Dominica Commodity Trading Company in Dominican Republic Commodity Trading Company in Ecuador Commodity Trading Company in Egypt Commodity Trading Company in El Salvador Commodity Trading Company in Equatorial Guinea Commodity Trading Company in Eritrea Commodity Trading Company in Estonia Commodity Trading Company in Ethiopia Commodity Trading Company in Federated States of Micronesia Commodity Trading Company in Fiji Commodity Trading Company in Finland Commodity Trading Company in France Commodity Trading Company in Gabon Commodity Trading Company in Gambia Commodity Trading Company in Georgia Commodity Trading Company in Germany Commodity Trading Company in Ghana Commodity Trading Company in Greece Commodity Trading Company in Grenada Commodity Trading Company in Guatemala Commodity Trading Company in Guinea Commodity Trading Company in Grenada Bissau Commodity Trading Company in Guyana Commodity Trading Company in Haiti Commodity Trading Company in Honduras Commodity Trading Company in Hungary Commodity Trading Company in Iceland Commodity Trading Company in India Commodity Trading Company in Indonesia Commodity Trading Company in Iran Commodity Trading Company in Iraq Commodity Trading Company in Ireland Commodity Trading Company in Israel Commodity Trading Company in Italy Commodity Trading Company in Jamaica Commodity Trading Company in Japan Commodity Trading Company in Jordan Commodity Trading Company in Kazakhstan Commodity Trading Company in Kenya Commodity Trading Company in Kiribati Commodity Trading Company in Kosovo Commodity Trading Company in Kuwait Commodity Trading Company in Kyrgyzstan Commodity Trading Company in Laos Commodity Trading Company in Latvia Commodity Trading Company in Lebanon Commodity Trading Company in Lesotho Commodity Trading Company in Liberia Commodity Trading Company in Libya Commodity Trading Company in Liechtenstein Commodity Trading Company in Lithuania Commodity Trading Company in Luxembourg Commodity Trading Company in Macedonia Commodity Trading Company in Madagascar Commodity Trading Company in Malawi Commodity Trading Company in Malaysia Commodity Trading Company in Maldives Commodity Trading Company in Mali Commodity Trading Company in Malta Commodity Trading Company in Marshall Islands Commodity Trading Company in Mauritania Commodity Trading Company in Mauritius Commodity Trading Company in Mexico Commodity Trading Company in Moldova Commodity Trading Company in Monaco Commodity Trading Company in Mongolia Commodity Trading Company in Montenegro Commodity Trading Company in Morocco Commodity Trading Company in Mozambique Commodity Trading Company in Myanmar Burma Commodity Trading Company in Namibia Commodity Trading Company in Nauru Commodity Trading Company in Nepal Commodity Trading Company in Netherlands Commodity Trading Company in New Zealand Commodity Trading Company in Nicaragua Commodity Trading Company in Niger Commodity Trading Company in Nigeria Commodity Trading Company in North Korea Commodity Trading Company in Norway Commodity Trading Company in Oman Commodity Trading Company in Pakistan Commodity Trading Company in Palau Commodity Trading Company in Panama Commodity Trading Company in Papua New Guinea Commodity Trading Company in Paraguay Commodity Trading Company in Peru Commodity Trading Company in Philippines Commodity Trading Company in Poland Commodity Trading Company in Portugal Commodity Trading Company in Qatar Commodity Trading Company in Romania Commodity Trading Company in Russia Commodity Trading Company in Rwanda Commodity Trading Company in Saint Kitts and Nevis Commodity Trading Company in Saint Lucia Commodity Trading Company in Saint Vincent and The Grenadines Commodity Trading Company in Samoa Commodity Trading Company in Marino Commodity Trading Company in Sao Tome and Principe Commodity Trading Company in Saudi Arabia Commodity Trading Company in Senegal Commodity Trading Company in Serbia Commodity Trading Company in Seychelles Commodity Trading Company in Sierra Leone Commodity Trading Company in Singapore Commodity Trading Company in Slovakia Commodity Trading Company in Slovenia Commodity Trading Company in Solomon Islands Commodity Trading Company in Somalia Commodity Trading Company in South Africa Commodity Trading Company in South Korea Commodity Trading Company in South Sudan Commodity Trading Company in Spain Commodity Trading Company in Sri Lanka Commodity Trading Company in Sudan Commodity Trading Company in Suriname Commodity Trading Company in Swaziland Commodity Trading Company in Sweden Commodity Trading Company in Switzerland Pantone Commodity Trading Company in Syria Commodity Trading Company in Taiwan Commodity Trading Company in Tajikistan Commodity Trading Company in Tanzania Commodity Trading Company in Thailand Commodity Trading Company in Timor Commodity Trading Company in Togo Commodity Trading Company in Tonga Commodity Trading Company in Trinidad and Tobago Commodity Trading Company in Tunisia Commodity Trading Company in Turkey Commodity Trading Company in Turkmenistan Commodity Trading Company in Tuvalu Commodity Trading Company in Uganda Commodity Trading Company in Ukraine Commodity Trading Company in United Arab Emirates Commodity Trading Company in United Kingdom Commodity Trading Company in United States Commodity Trading Company in Uruguay Commodity Trading Company in Uzbekistan Commodity Trading Company in Vanuatu Commodity Trading Company in Vatican City Commodity Trading Company in Venezuela Commodity Trading Company in Vietnam Commodity Trading Company in Yemen Commodity Trading Company in Zambia Commodity Trading Company in Zimbabwe

Home : About Us : Services : Payments : Enquiry : Order : Contact Us

© 2015 Commodity Trading Company. Website Design by Global Adverting Media Private Limited